The-Musketeers sur Google+
Tue, 16 Jan 2018 13:01:25 +0100
Food and Cosplay
"Centuries of inbreeding is making the aristocracy stupid." - Aramis

Cosplay by VJW
Taken at MCM Comic Con LDN 17

#aramis #themusketeers #allforone #oneforall
#aramiscosplay #themusketeerscosplay #cosplay]]>
Mon, 15 Jan 2018 20:36:08 +0100
Sonja Beeve (Luna Nightwynd)
The Three Musketeers - European Starlings in the early morning sun
Ramona Community Park - 1-13-18
Sonja Beeve (Luna Nightwynd)
Mon, 15 Jan 2018 14:11:07 +0100
Alpha Idiomas
Mon, 15 Jan 2018 13:27:42 +0100
Laura.Brown* Brauner
When one of the three musketeers was starled lol]]>
Mon, 15 Jan 2018 10:30:41 +0100
Tue, 16 Jan 2018 07:17:44 +0100
Digital Heisenberg (I Am Danger)


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Mon, 15 Jan 2018 04:42:07 +0100
Luci Warner
The Three Musketeers (aka, the three idiots) lol]]>
Sun, 14 Jan 2018 21:26:07 +0100
Maxoum 628
Wow that’s a bit sad the Marauders all die, 1981,1996 and 1998 there was 4 and they was best friends, they seem a lot like the 3 Musketeers well there’s 4 Musketeers ]]>
Sun, 14 Jan 2018 20:51:10 +0100
Secant To Nøne (ƒяσѕтι)
Fruity Robo review/Minirant??? I don't know, it's just going to be a heck load of text and spoilers so please click away if you don't want me to spoil the entirety of the four seasons AND Musketeers for you. Also I'm using a not great keyboard and my typing is really clunky and I can't type as fast as I wish to so I'm frustrated but anyways. Here goes

uhhh okay musketeers. A little bit all over the place? You could tell just from watching that they never meant for the series to get as big as it did. idk how obvious it was but musketeers (the twenty episode series during which the boys meet and shred the bad guys' plans and fringo and pitaya don't exist yet and dona gets kidnapped by pirates and mandarine tames a dragon with bubble gum oh those were the good old days) was an animation test. it was the unofficial sequel to 果冻宝贝 (which the fruity robo main series was named after) and at that point they had no idea what direction the show would take. no swords, no robots, they were jellos and not fruits, yeah it definitely spiraled out of control. of all the installments in the fruity robo saga this was the wackiest. There were animation errors and the environments were minimal, and the story was essentially three boys fucking around and happening to be able to save the day. Oh and the theme song

they made season one after they discovered that hey, people like musketeers so why not make a sequel? they didn't know if they wanted to make another sequel after it so they made the ending wide open. Season 1 was semi-plot driven but it felt somewhat shaky, and it was super random. Fringo and Pitaya, two new characters, were both introduced in the first episode. At this point the series was still the writers fucking around, except there's at least the feeling that there's an overarching conflict now. and also its really dark sometimes, and there's this weird "if you turn the radio to blah blah blah channel you can shapeshift" thing and its a significant improvement from musketeers but its still weird. and the conflict is meta af, but honestly fringo and mandarine were so fucking badass this season I cant even complain. like mandarine fucking legitimately DIES (not a near death situation,that there's no way for him to get out of but he gets out of anyway, this time he's legit dead for a full five minutes of the show). and the swords, the robots, and the rainbow lotus were all introduced this season, and they prove very important to the plot later on. the ending was sorta shit, the world kind of ended in a very comedic way but they save it in season 2

in season two was when they started getting serious. all of the characters got major development this season, especially fringo, and the entire show feels more grounded in reality as the conflict this season directly affects the protagonists. the animation improved, though I noticed while I was watching the season again that characters tended to teleport in between shots. and they reused a lot of animation. Fringo suddenly going "yeah I'm redeemed" at the beginning of the season felt really out of the blue, but they were able to play that to their advantage. A lot of the first half of the season was Fringo trying to gain their trust, and after his randomness and betrayal in season one they have very good reason not to trust him. but then he pretends to betray them and saves them from execution and they trust him wholeheartedly, he gets so much development I can't even. I love what they did with Fringo's character. and they finally introduced an overarching villain, and he's honestly quite a good villain. Everything feels more realistic this season. mandarine is again really badass and no longer suffers from confidence issues. I'm just really happy with how both Mandarine and Fringo were written this season

and ooooooohh boyohboy season three. okay so season three really wasn't that bad, I liked the twist ending at the end and I like how we were reminded straight off the bat that hey, this threat exists. But honestly some of the characters this season felt off and this season wasn't particularly well balanced. The animation was well done this season and the teleporting issue was gone and mandarine gets kicked in a coffin and kidnapped and all was swell. but the characters were imbalanced. well, first lemme go on a minirant. first episode of the new season and pineapplello already breaks character, he actually gives a shit now. he does something that is just so mandarine-y, it doesn't feel like him at all. mandarine and applo suffered significantly this season due to both lack of screen time and lack of development. applo less than mandarine. The only really previous-season-mandarine thing mandarine did (and this is mainly judging from the first half of the season) was cut the bridge in half and cover his teammates while they escaped, and ofc refusing to believe his teammates were dead and kicking everyone's ass while going down the mountain but honestly even that part felt a bit off. mandarine and applo weren't in the slightest suspicious of bane's motives and the show made them a fool for it and pineapplello basically dominates both mandarine and fringo's character arcs. You know the episode that's supposed to be about how much Mandarine cares for his teammates and how selfless he is? naw, I think we should make it about how freaking smart Pineapplello is compared to the others. You know the part where fringo is about to unveil this incredibly intelligent master plan for how to defeat the villains and NOT get pineapplello killed? naw, lets make that about how pineapplello can read stuff and have him do it instead. i mean even in super mandarine centered season one they took breaks from mandarine. and I don't think Mandarine recites that one super important mandarine poem even once in the first half of the season. The twist ending was quite good, even if the explanation was unrealistic, but the cliffhanger ending was frustrating considering that the next season wouldn't come out until late 2017 and season three came out 2014

which brings me to season four. Now, season four had good stuff. My biggest complaint was, WHY DID YOU STRAY FROM THE OVERARCHING PLOT. Why did you just throw away the story line that you spent the past five years crafting for literally no reason. (there is a reason but I don't feel like going into it.) The season three cliffhanger doesn't get addressed, or even mentioned, the entire story line was just trashed. the lotus doesn't exist, this isn't even the same fucking universe or the same story and I just wish they had resolved the season three cliffhanger. after the cliffhanger was worrying my ass off bc of how badly the screwed up in the third season, pineapplello loses the one thing that could save their universe and goes to the human world, the villain is who tf knows where, the modern world is on the brink of destruction and poof, new universe, no conflict, beautiful. ffs i understand that it must be difficult to turn things around after theyve gotten that bad but you guys obviously had already written the script for the fourth season by at the latest early 2016 and why did you trash it. why the fuck. did. you. trash. it. i miss the old universe and i worry for my characters and the fact that they discontinued the old arc with no explanation is honestly upsetting, considering that by early 2016 they had 1) written the script 2) recorded most of the audio 3) animated most of the season 4) released a trailer and trashed everything except for the character designs. the fourth season doesn't even really feel like the fourth season because of poor cliffhanger resolution and that's my main complaint for the season.

all that aside I think season four was okay, Mandarine was main character and we got a lot of development for Pitaya and Nutty. Pitaya's arc was so incredibly interesting, and I love how not black-and-white the characters were. The protagonists did some shitty things (such as pretending to save animals and/or old ladies for their fame) and Pitaya's character wasn't entirely bad, either. I DON'T like how they handled Fringo's character and the semi-redesign (I have a feeling they just lost Fringo's 3D model at some point during the making of the season and had to make a new one really fast and used bane's as a model, which is a shame since Bane's eyes make fringo look really off), he doesn't feel as quirky and as intelligent as in previous seasons. Mandarine did a lot of things that didn't feel very mandarine-y (the faking heroisms to gain popularities thing felt like something modern-day-previous-season-mandarine would never do) but he was also quite badass. the idea of magic/inner qi based attacks was introduced and handled very well, the relationships between characters were handled well, and i enjoyed the character development for Pitaya. And I feel like I would've enjoyed the musketeers' character arc if i hadn't been so attached to the previous season versions of them. also i feel like it would've been beneficial for them to slowly go form "we fake for popularity" to "we genuinely care for you guys and want to protect you" i think that would've been the best direction for soul of armor to progress in.
Sun, 14 Jan 2018 16:29:44 +0100
Donny Hess
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Historical fiction
Not to be confused with Pseudohistory.
Historical fiction is a literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting located in the past. Historical fiction can be an umbrella term; though commonly used as a synonym for describing the historical novel; the term can be applied to works in other narrative formats, such as those in the performing and visual arts like theatre, opera, cinema and television, as well as video games and graphic novels.

An essential element of historical fiction is that it is set in the past and pays attention to the manners, social conditions and other details of the period depicted.[1] Authors also frequently choose to explore notable historical figures in these settings, allowing readers to better understand how these individuals might have responded to their environments. Some subgenres such as alternate history and historical fantasy insert speculative or ahistorical elements into a novel.

Works of historical fiction are sometimes criticized for lack of authenticity because of readerly or genre expectations for accurate period details. This tension between historical authenticity, or historicity, and fiction frequently becomes a point of comment for readers and popular critics, while scholarly criticism frequently goes beyond this commentary, investigating the genre for its other thematic and critical interests.

Historical fiction, as a contemporary Western literary genre, has its foundations in the early 19th century works of Sir Walter Scott and his contemporaries in other national literatures such as Frenchman Honoré de Balzac, American James Fenimore Cooper, and later Russian Leo Tolstoy. However, the melding of "historical" and "fiction" in individual works of literature has a long tradition in most cultures; both western traditions (as early as Ancient Greek and Roman literature) as well as Eastern, in the form of oral and folk traditions (see mythology and folklore), which produced epics, novels, plays and other fictional works describing history for contemporary audiences.

Historical novel Edit
Definitions Edit
Definitions differ as to what constitutes a historical novel. On the one hand The Historical Novel Society defines the genre as works "written at least fifty years after the events described",[2] whilst on the other hand critic Sarah Johnson delineates such novels as "set before the middle of the last [20th] century […] in which the author is writing from research rather than personal experience."[3] Then again Lynda Adamson, in her preface to the bibliographic reference work World Historical Fiction, states that while a "generally accepted definition" for the historical novel is a novel "about a time period at least 25 years before it was written", she also suggests that some people read novels written in the past, like those of Jane Austen (1775–1817), as if they were historical novels.[4]

History of the genre Edit
3rd– 18th centuries Edit
Historical prose fiction has a long tradition in world literature. Three of the Four Classics of Chinese literature were set in the distant past: Shi Nai'an's 14th-century Water Margin concerns 12th-century outlaws; Luo Guanzhong's 14th-century Romance of the Three Kingdoms concerns the 3rd-century wars which ended the Han Dynasty; Wu Cheng'en's 16th-century Journey to the West concerns the 7th-century Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang.[5]

Classical Greek novelists were also "very fond of writing novels about people and places of the past".[6] The Iliad has been described as historic fiction, since it treats historic events, although its genre is generally considered epic poetry.[7] The Tale of Genji (c. 1000 AD) is a fictionalized account of Japanese court life and its author asserted that her work could present a "fuller and therefore 'truer'" version of history.[8]

One of the earliest examples of the historical novel in Europe is La Princesse de Clèves, a French novel which was published anonymously in March 1678. It is regarded by many as the beginning of the modern tradition of the psychological novel, and as a great classic work. Its author is generally held to be Madame de La Fayette. The action takes place between October 1558 and November 1559 at the royal court of Henry II of France. The novel recreates that era with remarkable precision. Nearly every character – except the heroine – is a historical figure. Events and intrigues unfold with great faithfulness to documentary record. In the United Kingdom the historical novel "appears to have developed" from La Princesse de Clèves, "and then via the Gothic novel".[9]

19th century Edit
Historical fiction rose to prominence in Europe during the early 19th century as part of the Romantic reaction to the Enlightenment, especially through the influence of the Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott, whose works were immensely popular throughout Europe. Jane Porter's 1803 novel Thaddeus of Warsaw is one of the earliest examples of the historical novel in English and went through at least 84 editions.[10] including translation into French and German,[11][12][13] The first true historical novel in English was in fact Maria Edgeworth's Castle Rackrent (1800).[14]

In the 20th century György Lukács argued that Scott was the first fiction writer who saw history not just as a convenient frame in which to stage a contemporary narrative, but rather as a distinct social and cultural setting.[15] Scott's Scottish novels such as Waverley (1814) and Rob Roy (1817) focused upon a middling character who sits at the intersection of various social groups in order to explore the development of society through conflict.[16] Ivanhoe (1820) gained credit for renewing interest in the Middle Ages.

Many well-known writers from the United Kingdom published historical novels in the mid 19th century, the most notable include Thackeray's Vanity Fair, Charles Dickens's A Tale of Two Cities, George Eliot's Romola and Charles Kingsley's Westward Ho! and Hereward the Wake. The Trumpet-Major (1880) is Thomas Hardy's only historical novel, and is set in Weymouth during the Napoleonic wars;[17] when the town was then anxious about the possibility of invasion by Napoleon.[18]

In the United States, James Fenimore Cooper was a prominent author of historical novels who was influenced by Scott.[19] His most famous novel is The Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757 (1826), the second book of the Leatherstocking Tales pentalogy.[20] The Last of the Mohicans is set in 1757, during the French and Indian War (the Seven Years' War), when France and Great Britain battled for control of North America. The Scarlet Letter (1850) by Nathaniel Hawthorne, is perhaps the most famous 19th-century American historical novel.[21] Set in 17th-century Puritan Boston, Massachusetts during the years 1642 to 1649, it tells the story of Hester Prynne, who conceives a daughter through an affair and struggles to create a new life of repentance and dignity.

In French literature, the most prominent inheritor of Scott's style of the historical novel was Balzac.[22] In 1829 Balzac published Les Chouans, a historical work in the manner of Sir Walter Scott.[23] This was subsequently incorporated into La Comédie Humaine. The bulk La Comédie Humaine, however, takes place during the Bourbon Restoration and the July Monarchy, though there are several novels which take place during the French Revolution and others which take place of in the Middle Ages or the Renaissance, including About Catherine de Medici and The Elixir of Long Life. Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1831) furnishes another 19th-century example of the romantic-historical novel. Victor Hugo began writing The Hunchback of Notre-Dame in 1829, largely to make his contemporaries more aware of the value of the Gothic architecture, which was neglected and often destroyed to be replaced by new buildings, or defaced by replacement of parts of buildings in a newer style.[24] The action takes place in 1482 and the title refers to the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, on which the story is centred. Alexandre Dumas also wrote several popular historical fiction novels, including The Count of Monte Cristo and The Three Musketeers. George Saintsbury stated: "Monte Cristo is said to have been at its first appearance, and for some time subsequently, the most popular book in Europe."[25] This popularity has extended into modern times as well. The book was "translated into virtually all modern languages and has never been out of print in most of them. There have been at least twenty-nine motion pictures based on it ... as well as several television series, and many movies [have] worked the name 'Monte Cristo' into their titles."[26]

Tolstoy's War and Peace offers an example of 19th-century historical fiction used to critique contemporary history. Tolstoy read the standard histories available in Russian and French about the Napoleonic Wars, and used the novel to challenge those historical approaches. At the start of the novel's third volume he describes his work as blurring the line between fiction and history, in order to get closer to the truth.[27] The novel is set 60 years before it was composed, and alongside researching the war through primary and secondary sources, he spoke with people who had lived through war during the French invasion of Russia in 1812; thus, the book is also, in part, ethnography fictionalized.[27]

The Betrothed (1827) by Alessandro Manzoni, It has been called the most famous and widely read novel of the Italian language.[28] The Betrothed was inspired by Walter Scott's Ivanhoe but, compared to its model, shows some innovations (two member of the lower class as principal characters, the past described without romantic idealization, an explicitly Christian message), somehow forerunning the realistic novel of the following decades.[29] Set in northern Italy in 1628, during the oppressive years under Spanish rule, it is sometimes seen as a veiled attack on Austria, which controlled the region at the time the novel was written.

The critical and popular success of The betrothed gave rise to a crowd of imitations and, in the age of unification, almost every Italian writer tried his hand at the genre; novels now almost forgotten, like Marco Visconti by Tommaso Grossi (Manzoni’s best friend) or Ettore Fieramosca by Massimo D’Azeglio (Manzoni’s son in law), were the best-sellers of their time. Many of these authors (like Niccolò Tommaseo, Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi and D’Azeglio himself) were patriots and politicians too, and in their novels the veiled politic message of Manzoni became explicit (the hero of Ettore Fieramosca fights to defend the honor of the Italian soldiers, mocked by some arrogant Frenchmen). Unfortunately, in them the narrative talent not equaled the patriotic passion, and their novels, full of rhetoric and melodramatic excesses, are today barely readable as historical documents. A significant exception is The confessions of an Italian by Ippolito Nievo, an epic fresco about the old Venetian republic's fall and the Napoleonic age, told with satiric irony and youthful brio (Nievo wrote it when he was 26 years old, before his premature death).

20th century Edit
A major 20th-century example of this genre is the German author Thomas Mann's Buddenbrooks (1901). This chronicles the decline of a wealthy north German merchant family over the course of four generations, incidentally portraying the manner of life and mores of the Hanseatic bourgeoisie in the years from 1835 to 1877. Mann drew deeply from the history of his own family, the Mann family of Lübeck, and their milieu. This was Mann's first novel, and with the publication of the 2nd edition in 1903, Buddenbrooks became a major literary success. The work led to a Nobel Prize in Literature for Mann in 1929; although the Nobel award generally recognises an author's body of work, the Swedish Academy's citation for Mann identified "his great novel Buddenbrooks" as the principal reason for his prize.[30] Mann also wrote, between 1926 and 1943, a four-part novel Joseph and His Brothers. In it Mann retells the familiar biblical stories of Genesis, from Jacob to Joseph (chapters 27–50), setting it in the historical context of the reign of Akhenaten (1353–1336 BC) in ancient Egypt.

Fani Popova–Mutafova (1902-1977) was a Bulgarian author who is considered by many to have been the best-selling Bulgarian historical fiction author ever.[31] Her books sold in record numbers in the 1930s and the early 1940s.[31] However, she was eventually sentenced to seven years of imprisonment by the Bulgarian communist regime because of some of her writings celebrating Hitler, and though released after only eleven months for health reasons, was forbidden to publish anything between 1943 and 1972.[32]

Robert Graves of Britain wrote several popular historical novels, including I, Claudius, King Jesus, The Golden Fleece and Count Belisarius. Other significant British novelists include Georgette Heyer, Naomi Mitchison, and Mary Renault. Heyer essentially established the historical romance genre and its subgenre Regency romance, which was inspired by Jane Austen. To ensure accuracy, Heyer collected reference works and kept detailed notes on all aspects of Regency life. While some critics thought the novels were too detailed, others considered the level of detail to be Heyer's greatest asset; Heyer even recreated William the Conqueror's crossing into England for her novel The Conqueror. Naomi Mitchison's finest novel The Corn King and the Spring Queen (1931) is regarded by some as the best historical novel of the 20th century.[33] Mary Renault is best known for her historical novels set in Ancient Greece. In addition to vivid fictional portrayals of Theseus, Socrates, Plato and Alexander the Great, she wrote a non-fiction biography of Alexander. The Siege of Krishnapur (1973) by J. G. Farrell has been described as an "outstanding novel".[34] Inspired by events such as the sieges of Cawnpore and Lucknow, the book details the siege of a fictional Indian town, Krishnapur, during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 from the perspective of the British residents. The main characters find themselves subject to the increasing strictures and deprivation of the siege, which reverses the "normal" structure of life where Europeans govern Asian subjects. The absurdity of the class system in a town no one can leave becomes a source of comic invention, though the text is serious in intent and tone.

Though the genre has evolved since its inception, the historical novel remains popular with authors and readers to this day and bestsellers include Patrick O'Brian's Aubrey–Maturin series, Ken Follett's Pillars of the Earth, and Neal Stephenson's Baroque Cycle. A development in British and Irish writing in the past 25 years has been the renewed interest in the First World War. Works include William Boyd's An Ice-Cream War; Sebastian Faulks' Birdsong and The Girl at the Lion d'Or (concerned with the War's consequences); Pat Barker's Regeneration Trilogy and Sebastian Barry's A Long Long Way. William Golding wrote a number of historical novels. The Inheritors (1955) is set in prehistoric times and shows "new people" (generally identified with Homo sapiens sapiens), triumphing over a gentler race (generally identified with Neanderthals) by deceit and violence. The Spire (1964) follows the building (and near collapse) of a huge spire onto a medieval cathedral (generally assumed to be Salisbury Cathedral); the spire symbolizing both spiritual aspiration and worldly vanity. The Scorpion God (1971) consists of three novellas, the first set in a prehistoric African hunter-gatherer band ('Clonk, Clonk'), the second in an ancient Egyptian court ('The Scorpion God') and the third in the court of a Roman emperor ('Envoy Extraordinary'). The trilogy To the Ends of the Earth, which includes the Rites of Passage (1980), Close Quarters (1987), and Fire Down Below (1989), describes sea voyages in the early 19th century.

American Nobel laureate William Faulkner's novel Absalom, Absalom (1936) is set before, during, and after the American Civil War. Kenneth Roberts wrote several books set around the events of the American Revolution, of which Northwest Passage (1937), Oliver Wiswell (1940), and Lydia Bailey (1947) all became best-sellers in the 1930s and 1940s. The following American authors have also written historical novels in the 20th century: Gore Vidal, John Barth, Norman Mailer, E.L. Doctorow, William Kennedy.[35]

In Italy, the tradition of the historical fiction has flourished also in the contemporary age, and moreover the Nineteenth century has caught the writers’ interest. Southern novelists like Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa (The leopard), Francesco Iovine (Lady Ava), Carlo Alianello (The heritage of the prioress) and, more recently, Andrea Camilleri (The Preston brewer) have retold the events of the Italian Unification, often overturning their traditional image, heroic and progressive. The conservative Riccardo Bacchelli in The devil at the long point and the communist Vasco Pratolini in Metello had described, by two ideologically opposite points of view, the birth of the Italian Socialism. Bacchelli is also the author of The mill on the Po, the powerful, also if a little farraginous, saga of a family of millers, from Napoleon to the First World War, one of the most epic novels of the last century.

In 1980, Umberto Eco achieved international success with The name of the rose, a novel set in an Italian abbey in 1327 and readable both as a historical mystery, as an allegory of the Italy in the “plumber years” and as an erudite joke. The Eco’s example, like the one of Manzoni before it, relaunched the interest of Italian public and writers for the genre and many novelists who till then had cultivated the contemporary novel, turned their hand to the stories set in the far centuries. So it was for Fulvio Tomizza (The evil coming from North, about the Reformation), Dacia Maraini (The silent duchess, about the female condition in the Eighteenth century) and Sebastiano Vassalli (The chimera, about the witch hunt). Among the writers emerged in the last years, Ernesto Ferrero (N) and Valerio Manfredi (The last legion) worth a mention.

Connection to nationalism Edit
Historical fiction sometimes encouraged movements of romantic nationalism. Walter Scott's Waverley novels created interest in Scottish history and still illuminate it.[citation needed] A series of novels by Józef Ignacy Kraszewski on the history of Poland popularized the country's history after it had lost its independence in the Partitions of Poland. Henryk Sienkiewicz wrote several immensely popular novels set in conflicts between the Poles and predatory Teutonic Knights, rebelling Cossacks and invading Swedes. He won the 1905 Nobel Prize in literature. He also wrote the popular novel, Quo Vadis, about Nero's Rome and the early Christians, which has been adapted several times for film, in 1913, 1924, 1951, 2001 to only name the most prominent. Sigrid Undset's Kristin Lavransdatter fulfilled a similar function for Norwegian history; Undset later won a Nobel Prize for Literature (1928).

The influence of the historical novel on society Edit
Many early historical novels played an important role in the rise of European popular interest in the history of the Middle Ages. Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame often receives credit for fueling the movement to preserve the Gothic architecture of France, leading to the establishment of the Monuments historiques, the French governmental authority for historic preservation.[36] Rita Monaldi and Francesco Sorti's historical mystery saga Imprimateur Secretum Veritas Mysterium has rose interest in European history and having famous castrato opera singer Atto Melani as a detective and spy. Although the story itself is fiction, many of the persona and events are not. The book is based on research by Monaldi and Sorti, who researched information from 17th-century manuscripts and published works concerning the siege of Vienna, the plague and papacy of Pope Innocent XI.[37]

The historical novel as a commentator on society Edit
The genre of the historical novel has also permitted some authors, such as the Polish novelist Bolesław Prus in his sole historical novel, Pharaoh, to distance themselves from their own time and place to gain perspective on society and on the human condition, or to escape the depredations of the censor.[38]

Historical events as a backdrop Edit
In some historical novels, major historic events take place mostly off-stage, while the fictional characters inhabit the world where those events occur. Robert Louis Stevenson's Kidnapped recounts mostly private adventures set against the backdrop of the Jacobite troubles in Scotland. Charles Dickens's Barnaby Rudge is set amid the Gordon Riots, and A Tale of Two Cities in the French Revolution.

Historical accuracy Edit
In some works, the accuracy of the historical elements has been questioned, as in Alexandre Dumas' Queen Margot. Postmodern novelists such as John Barth and Thomas Pynchon operate with even more freedom, mixing historical characters and settings with invented history and fantasy, as in the novels The Sot-Weed Factor and Mason & Dixon respectively. A few writers create historical fiction without fictional characters. One example is the historical mystery series Masters of Rome by Colleen McCullough.

Theory and criticism Edit
The Marxist literary critic, essayist, and social theorist György Lukács wrote extensively on the aesthetic and political significance of the historical novel. In 1937's Der historische Roman, published originally in Russian, Lukács developed critical readings of several historical novels by various authors, including Gottfried Keller, Charles Dickens, and Gustave Flaubert. He interprets the advent of the "genuinely" historical novel at the beginning of the 19th century in terms of two developments, or processes. The first is the development of a specific genre in a specific medium—the historical novel's unique stylistic and narrative elements. The second is the development of a representative, organic artwork that can capture the fractures, contradictions, and problems of the particular productive mode of its time (i.e., developing, early, entrenched capitalism).

Subgenres of the historical novel
Historical fiction in performing arts
Historical fiction in the visual arts
Historical topics lists
Further reading
External links
Last edited 14 days ago by Timmyshin
Genre fiction
fictional works written with the intent of fitting into a specific literary genre

Historical fantasy
genre of fiction

List of genres
Wikimedia list article

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